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PGY2 Critical Care

The PGY2 Critical Care Residency program at Maine Medical Center offers residents quality training in a pharmacy-friendly institution where resident learning is of utmost importance. Maine Medical Center is a welcoming environment that appreciates work-life balance and is supportive of the resident and their experience. We are dedicated to the care of our patients.

As Maine’s only Level 1 Trauma Center and a comprehensive stroke center, our residents see a diverse array of pathology. Our pharmacists have 24/7 coverage in the emergency department. Pharmacists are key members of the multidisciplinary teams in our ICUs. Our providers expect us to be on rounds and are hunting us down if we are not!

Our faculty is comprised of a tight-knit group of well-respected and accomplished preceptors. Faculty work closely with colleagues from every discipline which is highlighted by our multidisciplinary research efforts and our residency advisory committee, consisting of pharmacists, nurses, physicians, and advanced practice providers. Learn more about our faculty.

Our program supports our resident’s desire to be involved in quality improvement projects as well as research. Our strong research mentorship with established clinical researchers and aspiring researchers often leads to publications (on average 5-10 per year in an interdisciplinary fashion). Learn more about our research projects.

Located in beautiful Portland, Maine, our setting provides an added bonus to the resident experience at Maine Medical Center. Maine is called “vacationland” for a reason - Lonely Planet and Fodor’s have given shout-outs to Maine as one of the best places to visit in the world. Having easy access to a range of outdoor activities and top-notch food and beer establishments to quench our foodie palates allows residents to enjoy life outside of work.

From start to finish, our staff is dedicated to our resident’s progression and ensuring they have the training and experience necessary to graduate to a competitive position. Learn more about our alumni.

Below are some examples of recent PGY2 Critical Care Pharmacy Residency research projects:

  • Risk Factors for an Elevated Free Fraction of Valproate in Critically Ill Adults – two-center retrospective cohort
  • Methadone Bioavailability and Dose Conversion Implications with Intravenous and Enteral Administration – scoping review
  • Evaluation of Enteral Phosphate Replacement in the Intensive Care Unit – retrospective cohort
  • Non-Opioid Analgesics in the Intensive Care Unit – narrative review
  • Intensive Care Analgesic Review and Opioid Use Disorder – retrospective cohort
  • Accuracy of Point-of-Care Blood Glucose Levels in Critically Ill Patients with Sepsis Receiving High-Dose Vitamin C – prospective observational pilot
  • Opioid Rotation from Fentanyl to Hydromorphone – prospective observational
  • Neurostimulants in Acute Stroke Patients – retrospective cohort
  • Cefepime-induced Neurotoxicity - systematic review
  • Phenobarbital for Agitation in the Intensive Care Unit – retrospective cohort

MMC PHARMACY RESIDENT PUBLICATIONS 2013-2019 (Bold = PGY2 Resident authors, italic = preceptor)

  • Wampole CR, Smith KE. Beyond Opioids for Pain Management in Adult Critically Ill Patients. J Pharm Pract 2019;32:256-70. doi: 10.1177/0897190019834479.
  • Kovacic N, Gagnon DJ, Riker RR, Fraser GL. An analysis of psychoactive medications initiated in the ICU but continued beyond discharge: a pilot study of stewardship. J Pharm Pract 2019 [Epub ahead of print].
  • Brown CS, Zemrak WR, Dyer KJ, Rolfe S. Low-Dose Prothrombin Complex Concentrate in Patients with Left Ventricular Assist Devices. ASAIO J 2019;65:e21-e24.
  • Smith KE, Brown CS, Manning BM, et al. Accuracy of point-of-care blood glucose level measurements in critically ill patients with sepsis receiving high-dose intravenous vitamin C. Pharmacotherapy 2018; 38:1155-1161.
  • Payne LE, Gagnon DR, Riker RR, Seder DR, Glisic EK, Morris JG, Fraser GL. Cefepime-Induced Neurotoxicity: A Systematic Review. Crit Care 2017; 21:276.
  • Zemrak WR, Kelley E, Kovacic NL, Mooney DM, Morris JG, MacVane C, Rosenblatt JA. Thrombotic complications following the administration of high-dose prothrombin complex concentrate for acute warfarin reversal. Am J Emerg Med 2016;34:1736.e1-3.
  • Payne LE, Fraser GL. Power Pak C.E. A review of pharmacotherapy management of pain, agitation, and delirium in adult patients in the ICU. 2016.
  • Gagnon DJ, Nielsen N, Fraser GL, et al. Prophylactic antibiotics are associated with a lower incidence of pneumonia in cardiac arrest survivors treated with targeted temperature management. Resuscitation 2015; 92:154-159
  • Gagnon DJ, Riker RR, Glisic EK, et al. Transition from dexmedetomidine to enteral clonidine for ICU sedation: an observational pilot study. Pharmacotherapy 2015; 35:251-259
  • Fraser GL, Gagnon DJ, Riker RR. SLEAP: A Wake-Up Call to Question the Oversimplification of ICU Delirium. Crit Care Med 2015; 43: 703-705.
  • Riker RR, Seder DB, Gagnon DL, May T, Fraser GL. Analgesia, Sedation, and Neuromuscular Blockade After Cardiac Arrest. Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol 2015; 29:435-450.
  • Gagnon DJ, Kovacic NL, Fraser GL. ICU Agitation in Erstad B, ed. Critical Care Pharmacotherapy. Pages 161-185, American College of Clinical Pharmacy 2016.
  • Fraser GL, Gagnon DJ, Riker RR. Optimizing sedation and analgesia in the ICU; the role of neuromonitoring. In Bihorac A and Greenberg S. ed. Current Concepts in Adult Critical Care. Society of Critical Care Medicine. 2014.
  • Fraser GL, Devlin JW, Worby CP, et al. Benzodiazepine versus Non-Benzodiazepine-Based Sedation for Mechanically Ventilated, Critically Ill Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials. Crit Care Med 2013; 41:S30-S38.
  • Gagnon DJ, Fraser GL. Pain, Sedation, and Delirium in the ICU: the Pharmacist’s Role. Pharmacy Practice News 2013 (December).
  • Fraser GL, Worby C, Riker RR. Dissecting Sedation-Induced Delirium. Crit Care Med 2013; 41:1144-1146.

Every year our curriculum is customized to the interests and needs of the resident. The program director and preceptors will work with the resident to optimize and adjust the program and learning experiences. Below is a sample of learning experiences available to the PGY2 Critical Care resident (subject to change).


  • Cardiac Intensive Care
  • Cardiothoracic Intensive Care
  • Emergency Medicine
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Medical Intensive Care
  • Neurosciences Intensive Care
  • Surgical/Trauma Intensive Care


  • Advanced Core
  • Anticoagulation
  • Nutrition Support
  • Pediatric Intensive Care
  • Toxicology


  • Academic
    • College of Pharmacy Didactics
  • Pharmacy Practice - Drug Use/Policy/Research
    • Committee Involvement
    • Guideline/Protocol Development
    • Medication Use Evaluation
    • Research Project
  • Pharmacy Practice Operations


Learn more about application requirements, stipends & benefits.


Kathryn Smith, PharmD, BCPS, BCCCPLearn more about our Program Director, Kathryn Smith, PharmD, BCPS, BCCCP.